June 1, 2018 at 11:48 am #1533
Scientific method or scientific process (English: scientific method) is a scientific process to acquire knowledge systematically based on physical evidence. Scientists make observations and form hypotheses in their efforts to explain natural phenomena. Predictions made based on the hypothesis are tested by experimenting. If a hypothesis passes the test repeatedly, the hypothesis can be a scientific theory. The scientific method is the way of applying the logical principles to the discovery, validation and explanation of a truth.
Elements of scientific method
The method comes from the Greek, “Methodos” which means the way or path taken. While the scientific sense has something related to science. Thus, the scientific method is a way of seeking knowledge starting from problem determination, relevant data collection, data analysis and interpretation of findings, concluding with conclusions.
According to Almadk (1939), the scientific method is the way of applying the logical principles to the discovery, validation and explanation of truth. While Ostle (1975) argues that the scientific method is the pursuit of something to obtain something iterelasi.
Scientists and philosophers also provide various formulations regarding the understanding of the scientific method. George Kneller asserted that the scientific method is the rational structure of scientific inquiry in which the alleged baselines are compiled and tested. Harold Titus also states that the scientific method is a process or step to gain knowledge.
A key element of the scientific method is the repetition of the following five steps:
Characterization (observation and measurement)
Hypothesis (theoretical explanation which is a conjecture of observation and measurement)
Prediction (logical deduction of the hypothesis)
Experiments (testing on all of the above)
Evaluation and Repetition
The scientific method relies on careful characterization of the subject of investigation. In the process of characterization, scientists identify the main relevant traits that the subject has. In addition, this process can also involve the process of determination (definition) and observation; such observations often require careful measurements and / or calculations.
The measurement process can be done in a controlled place, such as a laboratory. The measurement process often requires specialized scientific equipment such as thermometers, spectroscopes, or voltmeter, and the advancement of a field of science is usually closely related to the invention of such equipment. Scientific measurement results are usually tabulated in tables, represented in graphical form, or mapped, and processed by statistical calculations such as correlation and regression.
Prediction of the hypothesis
A useful hypothesis will allow prediction based on deduction. The prediction may foresee the results of an experiment in a laboratory or observation of a phenomenon in nature. These predictions can also be statistical and only in the form of probabilities. The results predicted by these predictions must be unknown
If the predicted outcome is known, it is called a consequence and should have been taken into account when making the hypothesis. If the prediction can not be observed, the underlying hypothesis of the prediction is not yet useful to the method concerned and must wait for a method that may come. For example, new technologies or theories may allow experiments to be performed.
Once the prediction is made, the results can be tested by experiment. If the experimental results contradict predictions, the hypotheses that are tested are not correct or incomplete and require improvement or even need to be abandoned. If the experimental results match the prediction, then the hypothesis may be true but it may still be wrong and needs to be tested further.
Such experiments may be classical experiments in the laboratory or archaeological excavations. The notes will also aid in the reproduction of the experiment.
Evaluation and repetition
The scientific process is an iterative process, which is repetitive. In any step, a scientist may repeat an earlier step for some reason. The failure to form an interesting hypothesis can make the scientist reconsider the subject being studied. The ineffectiveness of a hypothesis in generating interesting and tested predictions can lead scientists to reconsider the hypothesis or the definition of a research subject. The inexperience of experiments in producing something interesting can lead scientists to reconsider the experimental method, the underlying hypothesis, or even the definition of the subject. Other scientists can also start their own research and enter the process at any stage. Stream Atlético Madrid They can adopt the characterization that has been done and form their own hypothesis, or adopt the hypothesis that has been made and deduce their own predictions. Often experiments in the scientific process are not done by people who make predictions, and characterizations are based on experiments performed by others.
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